What is computer language and its types

Language is a medium to express our views and feelings. To communicate with a computer, we need a language th a computer understands. For every action, a computer has to be given instructions accordingly.

  • A Program is a set of instructions that tells the computer what to do.
  • The process of writing specific instructions in a computer language is called Programming. Eac The programming language has its own specific rules. The development of programming languages has improve de
  • considerably with the ease and ability of programmers to write powerful application programs.
  • The development of computer languages has been classified into the following categories:

Four Types Of Computer Languages

  • Machine Language
  • Assembly Language
  • High-Level Language
  • Fourth-Generation Language


It is the only language that a computer understands. It is expressed in binary form, i.e., ‘0’ and ‘1’ where 0 means ‘Off’ state and 1 means ‘On’ state.

Machine Language has the advantage of very high speed and very low memory utilisation. But understanding and learning machine language is a tough and time consuming process. It is very difficult to write and debug programs written in machine language.

It is extremely machine-dependent. A machine language program written on one computer may or may not run on another computer. Because of this, very few people opt for specialisation in machine language. That is why Machine language is also regarded as Low Level Language (LLL).


This language uses Mnemonic codes or Symbols in place of 0 and 1 For example, if the operation code for add is 0010 in binary language, it can be directly written as “ADD” in assembly language, because Assembly language uses symbolic codes. Hence, it is easy to work with Assembly language than in binary language.

Since a computer can understand only machine language, so assembly language programs have to be converted into machine language. Translator programs known as Assemblers were developed to convert the assembly language program into machine language.

A program written in assembly language is called the Source program. Whereas, the program converted into machine language by the assembler is called Object program or Object code.

Like Machine language, Assembly language is also machine-dependent, and programming in this language is quite time-consuming. Thus, it is also regarded as a Low Level Language (LLL).


The restrictions in the usage of Machine and Assembly languages prompted people to develop a language with the following features.

  • Simple and user friendly language
  • Language that is machine-independent

Owing to the above mentioned features, it became easy to learn and use the computer languages. A large number of people started writing computer programs using these languages. That is why it is known as High Level Language (HLL). High level language is quite similar to the English language Basic C. C++, Java, etc.) are some of the very popular examples of high level languages.

High level language programs need to be translated into machine language by using the Translator programs.

There are two types of translator programs that are as follows:

  1. Interpreter
  2. Compiler


This translator program is used to convert a high level language program into machine language. An Interpreter translates line by line, executes the instruction, and then repeats the procedure for the remaining instructions.

If any errors are found, they are to be immediately removed. The converted form is not stored anywhere, therefore it has to be generated at the time of execution of a program. Interpreter programs are preferred for beginners, and are slow in execution speed.

EXAMPLE:- Suppose the French President is visiting India on an official tour. In order to understand each other, both the French President and the Indian Prime Minister would require an interpreter to translate the French language into the English language and vice versa.


Compiler is a translator program used to convert a high level language program into machine language. A Compiler translates the whole program at once, Le., it generates the object code for the program along with the list of errors. The execution is very fast


Fourth generation languages are closer to human language than any other high level languages.

Fourth generation languages are combination of languages with the following features:

  • Highly user-friendly and independent of any operating system.
  • Very high speed of execution. Designed to reduce level of programming efforts Minimum efforts from the user to obtain any information.
  • Designed to reduce the overall time it takes to develop software and the cost of software development. In 4GL, the user has to specify only the required output, and the format of the output without bothering about the steps required to obtain that.


MACHINE LANGUAGE1). The only language directly understood by a computer.
2). Uses binary codes to depict operators and data.
3). Machine-dependent.
ASSEMBLY LANGUAGE1). Uses Mnemonic Codes or Symbols instead of binary numbers. Machine-dependent.
2). Has to be converted into Machine language by Translator programs (Assemblers)
3). Machine-dependent.
HIGH LEVEL LANGUAGE1). Has to be converted into Machine language by Translator programs (Interpreters and Compilers)
2). Uses English words and mathematical operators.
3). Machine-independent.
4GL LANGUAGE1). Application development tool.
2). Machine-Independent Minimal user skills required to obtain results


What is programming

Programming is the process to writing specific instruction in a computer language.

What is machine language

Machine language is the only language that are computer understand.

What is syntax

Syntax are the rule governing the formation of statement in a programming language.

What is interpreter

An Interpreter translates line by line whereas a compiler translates the whole program at once.

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